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HIPOTIROIDISMO SUBCLÍNICO ¿CUÁNDO TRATAR? 

 

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10. Barón Castañeda G. Prevalencia de hipotiroidismo subclínico en la población post-menopáusica. Rev Col Menopausia 2001; 7 (2).

 

11. Ladenson PW, Singer PA, Ain KB, Bagchi N, Bigos ST, Levy EG, Smith SA, Daniels GH, Cohen HD. American Thyroid Association guidelines for detection of thyroid dysfunction. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1573–1575.

 

12. Builes CA, Rosero O, García J. Evaluación de disfunción tiroidea según TSH en una población de Bogotá.  Acta Med Colomb 2006; 31: 66-70.

 

13. Biondi B. Cardiovascular effects of mild hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2007; 17 (7):625-30.

 

14. Mariotti S, Cambuli VM. Cardiovascular risk in elderly hypothyroid patients. Thyroid. 2007; 17 (11):1067-73.

 

15. Rodondi N, Aujesky D, Vittinghoff E, Cornuz J, Bauer DC. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2006; 119 (7):541-51

 

16. Singh S, Duggal J et al. Impact of subclinical thyroid disorders on coronary heart disease, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: A meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2007 Apr 13; [Epub ahead of print]

 

17. Iervasi G et al. Association between increased mortality and mild thyroid dysfunction in cardiac patients. Arch Intern Med. 2007 Jul 23;167(14):1526-32.

 

18. Mariotti S, Zoncu S, Pigliaru F et al. Cardiac effects of l-thyroxine administration in borderline hypothyroidism. Int J Cardiol. 2007 May 9.

 

19. Baycan S, Erdogan D, Caliskan M et al. Coronary fl ow reserve is impaired in subclinical hypothyroidism. Clin Cardiol. 2007; 30(11):562-6.

 

20. Iqbal A, Schirmer H, Lunde P et al. Thyroid stimulating hormone and left ventricular function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Sep;92(9):3504-10.

 

21. Y u n K H , Jeong MH et al. Relationship of thyroid stimulating hormone with coronary atherosclerosis in angina patients. Int J Cardiol. 2007;122(1):56-60.

 

22. Karakurum, Goksel B, Karatas M et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism, hyperhomocysteinemia and dyslipidemia: investigating links with ischemic stroke in Turkish patients. Neurol Res. 2007; 29 (8):871-6.

 

23. Johnson JL. Diabetes control in thyroid disease. Diabetes Spectrum 2006; 19: 148-153.

 

24. Velija-Asimi Z, Karamehic J. The effects of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on metabolic control and hyperinsulinemia. Med Arh. 2007; 61(1):20.

 

 

25. Chen HS, Wu TE, Jap TS et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism is a risk factor for nephropathy and cardiovascular diseases in Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 2007 24 (12):1336- 441.

 

26. Haddow JE, Palomaki GE, Allan WC. Maternal thyroid defi - ciency during pregnancy and subsequent neuropsychological development of the child. N Engl J Med. 1999;341:549-55.

 

27. Casey BM, Dashe JS, Wells CE, McIntire DD, Byrd W, Leveno KJ, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and pregnancy outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:239-45. 

 

28. Pearce EN. Thyroid dysfunction in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Menopause Int. 2007; 13(1):8-13.

 

29. Eldar-Geva T, Shoham M, Rösler A et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism in infertile women: the importance of continuous monitoring and the role of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 Jun; 23(6):332-7.

 

30. Abalovich M, Mitelberg L, Allami C et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity in women with infertility. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2007 May; 23(5):279-83.

 

31. Almeida C, Brasil MA, Costa AJ et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism: psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2007; 29 (2): 157-9.

 

32. Monzani F, Caraccio N, Siciliano G. Clinical and biochemical features of muscle dysfunction in subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1997; 82:3315-8.

 

33. Laukkarinen J, Kiudelis G, Lempinen M et al. Increased prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in common bile duct stone patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92 (11):4260-4

 

34. Wartofsky L, Dickey RA. The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90 (9):5483-8.

 

35. Surks MI, Goswami G, Daniels GH. The thyrotropin reference range should remain unchanged. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005; 90(9):5489-96.

 

36. Surks MI, Hollowell JG. Age-specifi c distribution of serum thyrotropin and antithyroid antibodies in the u.s. Population: implications for the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92 (12):4575-82.

 

37. Andersen S, Pedersen M et al. Narrow Individual Variations in Serum T4 and T3 in Normal Subjects: A Clue to the Understanding of Subclinical Thyroid Disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87 (3): 1068-1072.

 

38. Madroño Freire MJ. Hipotiroidismo subclinico 25/06/03. Guías clínicas. 2003;3(15) (http://www.fi sterra.com)

 

39. Papi G, Uberti ED, Betterle C, Carani C, Pearce EN, Braverman LE, Roti E. Subclinical hypothyroidism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2007; 14(3):197-208.

 

40. Villar HC, Saconato H, Valente O, Atallah AN. Thyroid hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18; (3):CD003419

 

41. Helfand M. Screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in nonpregnant adults: a summary of the evidence  for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140:128–141

 

42. Cooper DS 2001 Clinical practice. Subclinical hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 345:260–265

 

43. Toft AD 2001 Clinical practice. Subclinical hyperthyroidism. N Engl J Med 345:512–516

 

44. Surks MI, Ortiz E, Daniels GH, Sawin CT et al. Subclinical thyroid disease: scientifi c review and guidelines for diagnosis and management. 2004; JAMA 291:228–238

 

45. Col NF, Surks MI, Daniels GH 2004 Subclinical thyroid disease: clinical applications. JAMA 291:239–243

 

46. American Academy of Family Physicians 2002 Summary of policy recommendations for periodic health examinations. Leawood, KS: American Academy of Family Physicians

 

47. Vanderpump MP, Ahlquist JA, Franklyn JA, Clayton RN. Consensus statement for good practice and audit measures in the management of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. The Research Unit of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Endocrinology and Diabetes Committee of the Royal College of Physicians of London, and the Society for Endocrinology. BMJ 1966; 313:539–544

 

48. McDermott MT, Haugen BR, Lezotte DC, Seggelke S, Ridgway EC 2001 Management practices among primary care physicians and thyroid specialists in the care of hypothyroid patients. Thyroid 11:757–764

 

49. Chu JW, Crapo LM. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism is seldom necessary. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:4591-4599.

 

50. McDermott MT, Ridgway EC. Subclinical hypothyroidism is mild thyroid failure and should be treated. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:4585–4590

 

51. Surks MI. Commentary: subclinical thyroid dysfunction: a joint statement on management from the American Association Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, the American Thyroid Association, and The Endocrine Society. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005.90:586–587

 

52. Ringel MD, Mazzaferri EL. Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction— Can There Be a Consensus about the Consensus? J Clin Endocrinol & Metab 2005; 90: 588-590.

 

53. Consenso en el diagnóstico y tratamiento de las afecciones del tiroides, Rev Cubana Endocrinol (La Habana) 2004; 15 (1)

 

54. Asociación Colombiana de Endocrinología, Consenso colombiano para el diagnóstico y manejo de las enfermedades tiroideas. Acta Médica Colombiana 24:159-174, 1999.

 

55. Guo CY, Weetman AP, Eastell R. Longitudinal changes of bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women on thyroxine. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1997; 46: 301- 307.

 

56. Razvi S, Ingoe L, Keeka G, Oates C, McMillan C, Weaver JU. The benefi cial effect of L-thyroxine on cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function and quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism: randomised, crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb 13 (ahead of print).

 

57. Takashima N, Niwa Y, Mannami T, Tomoike H, Iwai N. Characterization of subclinical thyroid dysfunction from cardiovascular and metabolic viewpoints: the Suita study. Circ J. 2007 Feb; 71(2):191-5.

 

58. González M, González CP, Sanabria A. Determinación ecográfi ca del volumen normal de la glándula tiroides en una población pediátrica de Bogotá, Colombia. Biomédica, 2006; 26 (1): 95-100.

 

59. Checchi S, Montanaro A, Pasqui L et al. L-thyroxine requirement in patients with autoimmune hypothyroidism and parietal cell antibodies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Nov 27 (E Pub ahead of print)

 

60. Parle JV, Maisonneuve P, Sheppard MC, Boyle P, Franklyn JA 2001 Prediction of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in elderly people from one low serum thyrotropin result: a 10-year cohort study. Lancet 358:861–865

 

61. Giraldo A, Fonseca DJ, Baquero H. ¿Por qué hacer tamizaje para hipotirodismo congénito?  ctualizaciones Enfermería 2001; 4 (2)

 

62. Alexander EK, Marqusee E, Lawrence J et al. Timing and magnitude of increases in levothyroxine requirements during pregnancy in women with hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med 2004;351:241-249

 

63. Toft A. Increased Levothyroxine Requirements in Pregnancy — Why, When, and How Much? N Eng J Med 2004; 351: 292-294

 

64. Jácome-Roca DE. Una señora obesa con mucho sueño. Del libro “Memorias de un Neurólogo”, Editorial Salvat, Barcelona, 1993. Pp.28-30.

 

65. Otero-Ruiz E. Coma Mixedematoso. En “Guías de actuación en urgencias y emergencias”. www.aibarra.org

 

66. Wall CR. Myxedema coma: diagnosis and treatment. American Family Physician. 2000. 62: 2485-90.

 

 

 

 

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